Smart Grid technologies involves deployment of ICT and IT infrastructure. Some of the functionalities/technological advancements adopted for Indian scenario are:
1. Advanced Meter Infrastructure
Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) facilitates monitoring and measurement of consumer information through Smart Meters installed at customer premises. The information is transferred to utility control centre through communication mode such GPRS / PLC / RF. Smart meters will also enable Time of Day (TOD) and Critical Peak pricing (CPP)/Real Time Pricing (RTP) rate metering and monitoring based on energy consumption.
2. Peak Load Management
The peak management refers to controlling the demand and matching it to the available supply at the instant of peak. The peak management function shall take inputs from SCADA for power availability and volume of shortage. Based on the shortage, the peak management function shall run algorithms considering various constraints and priorities predefined on the basis of customer profile by SI in association with Employer/Utility personnel, and suggest the options to Employer/Utility officials. The approach shall be to avoid tripping of feeders for load shedding and manage peak load either by load curtailment thru AMI or by price incentives/disincentives.
3. Power Quality Measurement
Power Quality Management address events like Voltage flickering (Sags/Swells), unbalanced phases voltages and harmonic distorted/contaminated supply etc. This will facilitate efficient and reliable operation of the power system, reduce losses, improve customer satisfaction and reduced equipment (utility/consumer) failures. Power Quality management shall include voltage / VAR Control, Load balancing, Harmonics Controller etc.
4. Outage Management
OMS manages unscheduled and scheduled outages of distribution infrastructure like Distribution Transformers (DTs), HT/LT feeders etc. It collect and coordinates information about outages including customer calls and report the operator for taking corrective actions through crew management and remote control enabling customer satisfaction, improve System Availability and Reliability.
A Microgrid is an integrated energy and communication system consisting of interconnected loads and Distributed Energy Resources (DER) which mainly operates in standalone mode or in parallel with the grid (macro grid) in case of emergency. Microgrid generation resources include micro turbines, wind, solar, fuel cells or other energy sources. The multiple dispersed generation sources and ability to isolate the microgrid from a larger network provides highly reliable electric power to its consumers.
6. Distributed Generation
Development and implementation of new and innovative technologies for distributed generation including technology, products, vendors and solutions, evaluation and design of suitable solution for managing renewable integration. Examples are technologies and solutions related to EV/PHEV (Plug-in Hybrid and/or Electric Vehicles), wind, photovoltaic and other distributed generation technologies, systems and solutions supporting flexibility of interaction with customers, energy usage/exchange, demand and losses management, management of transactions, pricing and billing, etc.